• Welcome to the Science Department

    Shark
     

     

    SCIENCE CURRICULUM GUIDE

     

    Honors courses in science are available in the areas of biology, chemistry and physics. They are comprehensive and intensive courses designed for the student who not only has an interest in these areas but who has already demonstrated high achievement in previous science courses, is prepared for an in-depth study, and is motivated to excel at an honor level. In addition, students planning to take Honors Biology must have excellent writing skills, whereas those participating in Honors Chemistry and especially Honors Physics are expected to have demonstrated a high aptitude in math.

    The honors courses are rigorous and require high levels of critical thinking, logical reasoning, and concept formation. In addition to learning factual information, students are expected to be well organized so that they can collect and interpret data, formulate conclusions, and apply their results appropriately. Honors courses include laboratory experiments, which require more abstract reasoning, and application of concepts than do the college preparatory science courses and consequently only those students who are prepared to meet these expectations should consider the higher-level courses.


    Contemporary Biology Grades 9-12

    6 Credits - Full Year

    Contemporary Biology is intended as an alternative to college preparatory and honors courses. Although this course covers many of the topics traditionally found in a high school biology course, the emphasis is on the practical, using everyday experiences and examples throughout its presentation.

    This course is intended for the student whose individual needs include strong, consistent reinforcement of knowledge areas as well as basic study skills such as reading, writing, note taking and test taking. This will be accomplished through numerous laboratory experiences, demonstrations, "hands- on” activities; computer assisted learning as well as a major project involving research.

    Thus, Contemporary Biology is a course that will provide the individual student with numerous opportunities for success while studying relevant topics such as human anatomy and physiology, plant growth and reproduction, the relationships of living things to their environment and social issues regarding the environment. Motivation is achieved through a high-interest, practical, activity-oriented curriculum.

     

    Biology Grade level: 9

    6 Credits - Full Year

    Biology is the study of life on the planet Earth. This is a standard college preparatory life science course. Among the concepts covered in the course are the structures and functions of cells, the biochemical basis of life, the characteristics of various organisms, the classification of organisms, genetics (including molecular genetics) and heredity, evolution and ecological relationships. The unity and diversity of life are emphasized. Various biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, circulation, digestion and nervous response are investigated. Laboratory investigations include studies of cells using the microscope, the examination of live and preserved organisms, and the analysis of genetic problems.

     


    Honors Biology               
    Prerequisite: Previous Science teacher recommendation

    Grade level: 9

    6 Credits - Full Year

    This comprehensive and intensive course is specifically designed for the 9th grade student who not only has an interest in science, but also has already demonstrated previous high-level achievement in science and in writing. The basic topics are similar to the Biology course; however each area in this rigorous course is treated with more in-depth study along with more advanced laboratory work. In addition to developing laboratory techniques and interpreting data, the writing up of experiments is stressed. Students are scheduled for two extended periods for laboratory work. It is expected that students who enroll in this course will be proficient readers, well organized, capable of abstract reasoning, highly motivated, and recommended by their 8th grade teachers.

     

    AP Biology

    Prerequisite: Honors Biology and Honors Chemistry and Science teacher recommendation

    Grade level: 11, 12

    7 Credits - Full Year

    The Advanced Placement Biology course is a rigorous course for those students who have a background, ability and motivation to take a first-year college biology course. The syllabus is outlined in the CEEB Advanced Placement Course Description booklet. In-depth studies and experimentation will prepare students for the Advanced Placement Examination in order for them to qualify for college credit and/or placement. Extensive laboratory sessions are scheduled relating to topics covered in lecture and discussion periods are included. Major areas of study include molecular, cellular, organism, and populational biology.

     

    Contemporary Chemistry Grades 10-11-12

    6 Credits - Full Year

    Contemporary Chemistry is presented as an alternative to the approaches used in the college preparatory and honors courses. Information obtained in Contemporary Chemistry is designed for practical applications to life in modern society.

    The course is highlighted by using numerous laboratory experiences, class activities and demonstrations rather than the traditional lecture. In addition, the student will be provided with opportunities to strengthen reading, writing, math, organizational and thinking skills using the study of chemistry as a vehicle. Lifelong careers are also suggested throughout the course.

    Thus, Contemporary Chemistry is a course that “touches all bases” to provide the student with an alternative to traditional chemistry. Motivation is achieved through a high interest, practical, activity-centered approach combined with an effort to improve basic skills.

     

    Chemistry Prerequisite: Algebra I

    Grade level: 10-12

    6 Credits - Full Year

    This Chemistry course serves as a comprehensive college preparatory course. The basic principles of conceptual and experimental Chemistry are emphasized, and topics of study will include the fundamentals of physical and chemical changes of matter, the theory behind chemical reactions and molecular bonding, and basic formula and equation writing. Students will develop their critical thinking and problem solving skills by applying abstract chemical concepts to extensive laboratory work. Students are also taught and encouraged to write cogent and analytical laboratory reports, thereby fostering the growth of their written communication skills.

    Overall, the course provides students with a solid foundation for future science courses.

     

    Honors Chemistry Prerequisite: Algebra I and Geometry

    Co-requisite: Algebra II

    Grade level: 10-12

    6 Credits - Full Year

    This is a comprehensive and intensive course in experimental and conceptual chemistry. The work includes the history and methods of science and ranges over the nature of atoms, molecules, and reactions. Among the major topics are structure, nuclear chemistry, quantum chemistry, bonding, formula and equation writing, stoichiometry, change of state, thermo chemistry, solutions, kinetics, equilibrium, and electrochemistry. Understanding the periodic table, developing laboratory techniques, interpreting data, and writing up experiments are stressed. The extensive laboratory work ranges from investigating the fundamental laws of chemical change to the analytical chemistry of acid-base titration and the determination of reaction rates. Modes on instruction include lecture, laboratory, demonstration, group discussion, and student board work. It is expected that students who enroll in this course will be able readers and proficient in basic algebra.

     

    Advanced Placement Chemistry Prerequisites:                                                                 Honors Biology, Honors Chemistry

    Co-requisites: Honors Pre-calculus

    or Pre-calculus

    Grade level: 11-12

    7 Credits - Full Year

    The AP Chemistry course is essentially a first-year college chemistry course designed to prepare the student for the Advanced Placement Examination. The content includes the items specified in the CEEB Advanced Placement Course Descriptions booklet. Specifically, the course involves review and elaboration of principles encountered in chemistry and physics especially in the area of atomic structure, bonding, equilibrium, and kinetics, thermodynamics and electrochemistry. Students are expected to spend at least six hours a week in textbook study, problem solving and laboratory reports outside of class.

     

    Physics & Concepts Prerequisites: Biology, Chemistry

    Co-requisite: Algebra II

    Grade level: 11-12

    6 Credits - Full Year

    Physics & Concepts is a laboratory-based physics course that is writing intensive. Standard topics in mechanics, thermodynamics, waves, optics, electricity, magnetism, and modern physics will be covered. The course will require some use of algebra and geometry but the emphasis will be on written descriptions of the physics of everyday phenomena.

    Physics Co-requisite: Pre-Calculus

    Grade level: 11-12

    6 Credits - Full Year

    This is a college preparatory course in physics, which is designed to interest and benefit all students. The student explores topics such as space, time, motion, energy, light, waves, sound, electricity and modern physics by means of a variety of activities. Included are laboratory experiments, numerous demonstrations, and computer-aided experiments.

    AP Physics 1                                                                                                                     Grades11-12

      Prerequisites:  Honors Biology &Honors Chemistry

              Co-requisite: Honors Pre-calculus or Calculus

        7 Credits – Full Year

    AP Physics 1: Algebra-basedis theequivalent of a first-semester college course in algebra-based physics that isdesigned to be taught over a full academic year. Having a full year enables APteachers and students to develop deep understanding of the content and to focuson applying their knowledge through inquiry-based laboratory experiences. Thefull year also allows time for inclusion of physics content specified by NewJersey State standards. The course covers Newtonian mechanics (includingrotational dynamics and angular momentum); work, energy, and power; mechanicalwaves and sound. It also introduces electric circuits.

    AP Physics 2                                                                                                                               Grade 12

               Prerequisites: AP Physics I or Physics - Co-requisite:        Calculus or AP Statistics or AP Chemistryand Calculus

     7 Credits – Full Year   

    AP Physics 2: Algebra-based is theequivalent of a second-semester college course in algebra-based physics that isdesigned to be taught over a full academic year. Having a full year enables APteachers and students to develop deep understanding of the content and to focuson applying their knowledge through inquiry-based laboratory experiences. The fullyear also allows time for inclusion of physics content specified by New JerseyState standards. The course covers fluid mechanics; thermodynamics; electricityand magnetism; optics; atomic and nuclear physics.

     

     AP Physics C                                                                                                                           Grade 12

    Prerequisites:  APPhysics 1 - Co-requisite:  AP Calculus BC

        7 Credits – Full Year

    There are two AP Physics Ccourses — Physics C: Mechanics and Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, eachcorresponding to approximately a semester of college work.  Mechanics istypically taught first, followed by Electricity and Magnetism.  Thecourses are taught over the course of a year, with approximately equal timegiven to each.  Both courses will utilize guided inquiry andstudent-centered learning to foster the development of critical thinking skillsand will use introductory differential and integral calculus throughout thecourse.

    Physics C: Mechanics will provideinstruction in each of the following six content areas: kinematics; Newton’slaws of motion; work, energy and power; systems of particles and linearmomentum; circular motion and rotation; and oscillations and gravitation. Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism will provide instruction in each of thefollowing five content areas: electrostatics; conductors, capacitors anddielectrics; electric circuits; magnetic fields; and electromagnetism

    Advanced Placement PhysicsC will be blocked with students who are enrolled in Advanced Placement CalculusBC.  Students interested in these courses must enroll in both courses,which will be scheduled sequentially.  As a result of this schedulingscenario, the courses are team taught by an AP Physics instructor and an APCalculus BC instructor. 

    Permission of instructors (AP Physics C and APCalculus BC) is required for admittance into this courseIn addition, Prospective studentsmust have taken the AP Physics 1 National Examination administered by theCollege Board and received a score of 3, 4 or 5.  Students may not submit a Course PlacementApplication to gain entrance into these courses. 

     

    Earth/Space Science Grade Level 11-12

    6 Credits - Full Year

    Earth/Space Science is the study of the materials, which compose the planet Earth, the processes that alter those materials, and the features and processes found in the universe outside our world. The course is divided into four main sections: geology, astronomy, meteorology, and oceanography. The physics topics of motion, forces and energy will be infused, where applicable, throughout the course. Geologic studies include the study of the structure of the Earth, minerals and rocks, volcanic activity, the measurement of geologic time, erosion, shoreline features, earthquakes, mountain formation, plate tectonics, and ancient life. Astronomy considers the nature and formation of the solar system, stars, and galaxies. Meteorology deals with the composition, structure, and behavior of the atmosphere. Various weather phenomena are considered and worldwide weather patterns are studied. Oceanographic studies include investigations of the structure, chemistry, and behavior of the world’s oceans. Ocean currents and the sea floor are studied. Laboratory work includes the use of minerals, rocks, fossils, several kinds of maps, stereoscopic aerial photographs of the Earth’s surface, earthquake records, weather satellite images and maps, star charts, and a telescope for viewing extra-terrestrial features.

     

    Human Anatomy & Physiology Prerequisites: Any Biology course

    and any Chemistry course

    Grades: 11 and 12

    6 Credits – Full Year

    Human Anatomy and Physiology is a college preparatory course designed for the junior or senior student with a genuine interest in the biological sciences, or a strong interest in a possible career choice for which a background in Anatomy and Physiology might be of value. The course will be targeted at the general level student at Mountain Lakes, so that, with appropriate effort, most of our students could successfully complete the course.

     

    Human Anatomy and Physiology will be a survey of human systems, their functions, and mechanisms of action. Emphasis will be placed on integration of systems, homeostatic mechanisms, and failures of those mechanisms that lead to disease. Laboratory activities will be an integral part of the course, and will include dissections, mechanical, and chemical activities, as well as cardiovascular and pulmonary activities related to exercise and fitness. Topics covered will include a review of cell biology, the integument, muscle anatomy and physiology, the nervous system, the senses, the cardiovascular system, the excretory system, hormonal control physiology, the reproductive systems, and human development.

     

     

     APEnvironmental Science                            Prerequisites: Honors Biology & Honors Chemistry 

              Prerequisite:  Algebra II

    Grade 11 & 12 

       7 Credits –Full Year

    Thegoal of the AP Environmental Science course is to provide students with thescientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand theinterrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmentalproblems both natural and human-made, to evaluate the relative risks associatedwith these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving orpreventing them. Environmental science is interdisciplinary; it embraces a widevariety of topics from different areas of study. Yet there are several majorunifying constructs, or themes, that cut across the many topics included in thestudy of environmental science. The following themes provide a foundation forthe structure of the AP Environmental Science course.

     

    1.    Science is a process.

             -   Science is a method of learning moreabout the world.

    -       Scienceconstantly changes the way we understand the world.

     

    2.    Energy conversions underlie all ecological processes.

             -   Energy cannot be created; it must comefrom somewhere.

    -       Asenergy flows through systems, at each step more of it becomes unusable.

     

    3.    The Earth itself is one interconnected system.

             -   Natural systems change over time andspace.

    -       Biogeochemicalsystems vary in ability to recover from disturbances.

     

    4.    Humans alter natural systems.

             -   Humans have had an impact on theenvironment for millions of years.

    -       Technologyand population growth have enabled humans to increase both the rate and scaleof

        their impact on the environment.

     

    5.    Environmental problems have a cultural and social context.

             -   Understanding the role of cultural,social, and economic factors is vital to the development of                    solutions.

    6.    Human survival depends on developing practices that will achievesustainable systems.

             -   A suitable combination of conservation anddevelopment is required.

    -       Managementof common resources is essential.

     

    TheAP Environmental Science course is an excellent option for any interestedstudent who has completed two years of high school honors laboratory science —one year of honors life science and one year of honors chemistry. Due to thequantitative analysis that is required in the course, students should also havecompleted an Algebra II course (Enriched or Honors).  The AP EnvironmentalScience course is designed to be the equivalent of a one semester, introductorycollege course in environmental science.